Everyone wants their kids to be a success. So what does it take? Psychological research has pointed to a handful of factors that predict success, and much of it comes down to good parenting. Here's the list, according to Business Insider.
1. The kids are taught social skills by their parents.
A study from Penn State and Duke found a significant correlation between a child's social skills as a kindergartner and their success as adults. They were more likely to earn a college degree and have a full-time job by age 25 than those with limited social skills. And those with limited social skills had higher chances of getting arrested, binge drinking and applying for public housing.
2. The parents have high expectations for their children.
Expecting that your child will go to college has a great impact on the likelihood that he or she will attend. A study looking at standardized tests found that 57 percent of the kids who did the worst were expected to attend college by their parents, while 96 percent of the kids who did the best were expected to go to college.
3. The mothers work.
Research out of Harvard Business School found that daughters of working moms went to school longer, were more likely to have a job in a supervisory role and earned more money compared to their peers who were raised by stay-at-home mothers. The sons of working moms were more likely to pitch in with childcare and chores.
4. The parents have a higher socioeconimic status.
The achievement gap between high- and low-income families is "roughly 30 percent to 40 percent larger among children born in 2001 than among those born 25 years earlier," according to research out of Stanford University.
5. Higher education levels have been achieved by the parents.
Research out of the University of Michigan found that mothers who graduated from high school or college were more likely to raise children who did the same. Children born to teen moms were less likely to finish high school and go on to college.
6. The parents teach their kids math early on.
Early development of math skills not only predicts future math achievement, but also future reading success, as determined by a study out of Northwestern University.
7. The parents develop a relationship with their kids.
Being a sensitive caregiver is found to help children perform better on academic tests in childhood, as well as develop healthier relationships and greater academic success into their 30s.
The more a parent is stressed around the kids, the more that negative energy can affect the children via "emotional contagion." That's basically when bad feelings rub off from one person to another.
9. The parents value effort over the avoidance of failure.
By approaching things with a growth mindset, a parent "thrives on challenge and sees failure not as evidence of un-intelligence but as a heartening springboard for growth and for stretching our existing abilities." In other words, these parents aren't put off by failure, and see it as a way to grow and be better able to achieve success in the future.